Bluetooth In Computer Networks

Bluetooth In Computer Networks – Mantos Kazantsidis, Rohit Kapoor, Mario Gerla Department of Computer Science, UCLA IEEE Network 2001 via Johansson Erikson Research. September-October

3 Abstract In the abstract, portable electronic devices interact directly to form a network personal area network (PAN). A dedicated network can be used to create a stable and flexible connection. The Bluetooth piconet network architecture, a strict star topology, has been extended to a broadcast network architecture where piconets are interconnected. The Bluetooth standard defines the specific mechanisms and algorithms that gateway nodes perform Inter-Pionet Scheduling (IPS). A family of possible IPS algorithms called Rendezvous Point algorithms is also introduced and discussed.

Bluetooth In Computer Networks

Bluetooth In Computer Networks

4 Introduction Bluetooth uses a frequency shift scheme in the unlicensed industrial scientific medical (ISM) band at 2.4 GHz. The primary purpose of Bluetooth wireless technology is to enable relatively inexpensive electronic devices to communicate directly in a dedicated manner. In addition, Bluetooth devices can also form networks, such a network of individual devices is often called a private area. network (PAN). Internet access via a (public) wireless LAN (WLAN) access point and/or a third-generation (3G) mobile phone allows PAN devices to work seamlessly. Bluetooth poses many technical challenges from a networking perspective, such as building an ad hoc network and scheduling traffic between nodes.

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5 Introduction (cont.) Bluetooth works mostly ad hoc because it has no infrastructure. This is reflected in how nodes are exposed and how networks are created with little or no pre-configuration. Participants in a Bluetooth network must be mobile, and nodes may also join or leave the network frequently. Bluetooth PAN specifications are often such that specific network concepts fit very well and help create a reliable and flexible network connection.

The PAN devices are interconnected by three laptops and one PDA. In addition, two PANs are connected to the IP trunk, one through a LAN access point and the other through a GPRS (General Packet Radio Service2) phone, creating two possible ways to access the IP trunk.

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PAN performance characteristics Distributed operation: A PAN node cannot rely on the network in the background to support the security and routing functions that must be designed to operate effectively in distributed environments. Dynamic network topology: Nodes become mobile, which affects the design of routing protocols. Additionally, a dedicated network user will need access to a fixed network, even if the nodes are moving. Variable communication capacity: The effect of high bit error rate is greater in multi-order ad hoc network, the Bluetooth communication layer uses automatic repeat request (ARQ) and error correction (FEC) techniques to solve these problems. Low power devices

Two or more Bluetooth devices sharing the same channel form a piconet. Figure 2 shows three examples of different piconet configurations. Within a Piconet, a Bluetooth device can play one of two roles: master or slave. Each peak network can have only one master (and there must always be one) and up to seven active slaves. Any Bluetooth device can be a piconet host.

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Bluetooth Basics Figure 3 shows a transmission network consisting of twelve piconets. A communication point between two piconets consists of a Bluetooth device that is a member of both piconets. A Bluetooth device can be a secondary member of multiple piconets at the same time, but can only be a primary member of one.

Bluetooth Basics Since a Bluetooth device can transmit and receive data on only one piconet at a time, its participation in multiple piconets must be a time division multiplexer (TDM). Bluetooth provides full-duplex transmission based on Time Division Duplex (TDD) with a duration of ms per slot. In a Bluetooth peak network, there is no direct transfer between slaves, only from master to slave. Piconet communication is organized so that the master requests each ball according to a request scheme. The slave can only send after the master asks. The router starts sending the packet in the slave-master time slot immediately after receiving the packet from the master.

PAN nodes based on distributed networks located in several piconets, ie. that is, nodes between piconets can have applications running independently on piconets or act as gateways between piconets and traffic between them. Figure 4 In this scenario, inter-piconet nodes (laptops) do not forward traffic, because PAN slave nodes usually need to exchange local information with hosts (laptops).

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Bluetooth In Computer Networks

PAN devices based on a distributed network In Figure 5, laptop PAN 1 acts as an inter-piconet gateway, directly routing packets between PAN 1 and laptops.

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PAN networks based on distributed networks The roles of nodes in such a group can be rearranged to adapt to the new distribution of traffic between nodes by changing the distribution of primary, auxiliary and piconetic nodes. For example, if two auxiliary nodes need to communicate, it may be more appropriate to create a new piconet containing only these two nodes (see Figure 6). Nodes can still be part of their original piconet.

Packet forwarding in a point-to-point network Packet forwarding (routing) is necessary when packets must travel between source and destination nodes multiple times. Current IP DHCP and emerging zero-configuration methods rely on link-layer connectivity. Typically, the protocols do not work outside of an IP router, meaning they cannot reach nodes that are more than one Bluetooth hop away on an IP-based broadcast network. A broadcast network, which provides connectivity like a broadcast segment, allows these protocols to function.

Packet forwarding in a point-to-point network To work effectively, the routing function must be combined with the distribution network function. Thus, the IP layer routing functionality must be very tightly coupled or interoperable with the underlying Bluetooth layer, which defeats the idea of ​​keeping the IP layer as independent as possible from the link layer technology. Other non-IP applications can use the broadcast network functions provided by the Bluetooth network layer, ie. that is, Bluetooth devices do not have to deploy the IP layer to use the network functions of a broadcast network.

Packet Forwarding in a Broadcast Network In conclusion, the best way to protect the network between nodes in a Bluetooth broadcast network is to route at the Bluetooth network layer below IP. This approach is also being used by the Bluetooth SIG PAN working group, which is developing a network protocol called Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol (BNEP) to provide an Ethernet-like interface to IP.

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Packet Forwarding in a Dispersed Network The first release of BNEP focused only on providing a broadcast segment in a single peak network, but BNEP has the ability to provide a wide-spectrum broadcast segment. In terms of protocol, BNEP is placed on top of the Bluetooth link layer protocol, L2CAP (Logical Communication and Control Adaptation Protocol).

The distribution segment provided by BNEP serves the distributed network route IP. For a broadcast network, the 48-bit Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) can be used as a unique identifier for broadcast nodes. Thus, a specific routing protocol can use them in the same way that IP addresses are used in IP versions of routing algorithms. broadcast network formatting and reformatting must be part of or tightly integrated with the broadcast network routing algorithm.

Distribution Network Formation Piconets and broadcast networks must adapt to network connectivity, traffic distribution, and node mobility. Obviously, the routing protocol of the broadcast network must affect the formation of the broadcast network. Formatting functions are also necessary for general communication in a broadcast network to find nodes that a routing protocol is looking for.

Bluetooth In Computer Networks

Intra-Piconet Scheduling A piconet master manages traffic within a piconet by polling slaves according to any desired algorithm that determines how bandwidth is allocated among slaves. After polling the slaves within the piconet, the slaves on the master are scheduled, which is called intra-piconet scheduling (IRPS). The controller’s IRPS function shall estimate the power needs of the distribution network facilities to ensure fair capacity allocation or any other preferred capacity sharing policy.

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Inter-piconet scheduling In a distributed network, at least one Bluetooth device is a member of more than one piconet. These piconet internodes can play the slave role in many piconets, but can play the master role in only one of them. Regardless of roles, an inter-piconet node must plan its presence in all piconet networks of which it is a member, so in addition to an intra-piconet scheduling algorithm, an inter-piconet scheduling (IPS) algorithm is also required. The main task of inter-piconet scheduling is to schedule the presence of an intermediate network node in its different piconets.

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